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I strongly believe that the cause of Ulcerative Colitis is not the abnormality of Immune system or Autoimmune disorder as is widely believed but a chronic imbalances in the microbial flora that set off a chain of pathogenic events. If it were abnormal Immune system than removing the colon by Colectomy would have not cured this Chronic condition.
A damaged intestinal mucosa triggers and perpetuates Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) by allowing a steady stream of antigens and toxins to continually confront the immune system. This imbalance of gut flora can be caused by bacterial microorganisms.
There are four major groups of microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa (a type of parasite). Disease microorganisms (most people call them germs) can be from any of these four categories.
Infectious causes for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) generally have a more acute onset and run a shorter course than other forms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Bacterial organisms that can produce Inflammatory Bowel Disease IBD include Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and some E. coli. Bacteria are a common cause of acute colitis. Viral causes include Norwalk-like virus and rotavirus (small bowel) as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus in immune compromised people. Other causes include chlamydial infection and amebiasis.
Bacteria are microscopic living things that have only one cell (unicellular) and are one of three shapes, rods, balls or spirals. Some bacteria cells exist as individuals while others cluster together to form pairs, chains, squares or other groupings. Vast numbers of bacteria live in, and on, our bodies. Some are beneficial. For example, some bacteria help us digest food, destroy disease-causing cells and give the body needed vitamins.
There are other bacteria that can infect people, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they include:
Viruses are the most primitive of microorganisms and are much smaller than bacteria. A virus is basically a tiny bundle of genetic material carried in a shell called the viral coat or envelope. Viruses only exist to reproduce. To do that, they have to take over suitable host cells. They invade the cells and once inside, multiply, killing the host cells in the process. This is what makes you sick. Viruses are easily destroyed by disinfectants outside the body, but can be difficult to eliminate once infection has taken place.
Some viruses that can make people sick, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include:
There are many, many different kinds of fungi, but only a small number of them make us sick. A fungus is actually a primitive plant that is found in air, in soil, on plants and in water. Some common fungi include mushrooms, yeast, mold and mildew. The body normally hosts a variety of fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, but others may form infections. A fungal infection of humans is called a mycosis. Mycoses can affect skin, nails, hair and internal organs.
Yeast infection (Candida albicans) can often be a major
co-factor contributing to UC. The Candida organism normally grows
in the gut, and its generation of toxins is exacerbated by sugars and
simple carbohydrates. Infection can be partly controlled by minimizing
estrogen (found in birth control pills and menopause relief drugs), and by
severely limiting carbohydrates in the diet. The growth of Candida is encouraged by antibacterial antibiotics, which kill the normal
“good” intestinal bacterial flora that usually generate molecules that
suppress the yeasts.
Treatments for yeast sensitivity are directed at greatly reducing the size and extent of the colony. They start with intestinal cleanout as for a fiberoptic sigmoidoscope exam, followed by systemic long term antifungal (e.g., nystatin) and topical vaginal nystatin if applicable. Sometimes a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction is induced, and ideally a physician skilled in the treatment of yeast infections should be controlling the treatment.
The Candida microbe can invade cells and
live inside them. This makes it hard for antifungal drugs to fully
eliminate a yeast colony. A permanent diet change is essential for
control. Dietary guidelines to suppress Candida overgrowth include
daily intake of garlic, omega-3 fatty acids (flaxseed, fish oil), caprylic
acid (liquid fatty acid found in butter and other fats and oils), and
especially probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus
bifidus, Bifidobacteria bifidus, buttermilk, yogurt, etc.
In another of its forms, C. albicans extends a microscopic tube that infiltrates the intestine lining and causes it to leak tiny particles of undigested food into the blood. This causes the so-called “leaky gut syndrome” leading to the generation of blood-borne immune complexes (IgG, IgE) specific to certain foods that cause allergic reaction. These immune complexes exacerbate the inflammation of other resident infections, aggravating RA, FMS, and other so-called autoimmune disorders. Inflammation is also sometimes seen at sites of past injuries, where bacterial infection may be latent and waiting for an opportune time to emerge.
Gut inflammation by yeast may be complicated by other infections, such as milk-borne, heat resistant Micobacteria paratuberculosis, which is the cause of a Crohn’s disease look-alike infection called Jonne’s disease in dairy cattle with an epidemic dairy herd infection level at an estimated 15% to 20%. Other food/water borne bacterial gut co-infections may include Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, salmonella, certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium.
Protozoa are a group of microscopic, single-celled animals. They can be free-living or parasitic in nature. While protozoa can be an important source of food for animals like snails, clams and sponges, they can also cause serious infections in humans. Protozoa can be transmitted to the body by eating contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or through the bite of an insect like a mosquito or fly. While many protozoan infections are more common in the tropics and subtropics, they can also affect people in temperate zones as well.
Imbalances of Essential Fatty Acids
Because certain infectious organisms produce symptoms very similar to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), testing for other possible causes, like parasites, is strongly recommended. Many Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) symptoms produced by chronic inflammatory immune response may be significantly reduced by addressing imbalances of essential fatty acids. Levels of zinc, iron, copper and other crucial minerals are often deficient in patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).
Allergic Immune Reactions to Food Particles
Allergic immune reactions to food particles may play an important role in the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) symptoms. Low levels of important amino acids can cause aggravated inflammatory responses. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is also associated with malabsorption of nutrients. Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
Ulcerative colitis causes inflammation and ulcers in your intestine. But unlike Crohn's, which can affect the colon in various sections, ulcerative colitis usually affects one continuous section of the inner lining of the colon beginning with the rectum.
No one is quite sure what triggers ulcerative colitis, but there's a consensus as to what doesn't. Researchers no longer believe that stress is the main culprit, although stress can often aggravate symptoms. Instead, current thinking focuses on the following possibilities: